Financial Advisor?s Job Description

This helped in the overall development of the world and also increased the competition in various fields. To meet with the competition and to sustain in the market many companies concentrating in different areas have come with innovative ideas. Even banks and other financial institutions have come up with more liberal policies, especially in the field of industrial loans. This really catalyzed the process of industrialization and as a part of this development s a number of new professions have been created. The profession of financial advisor is one such profession. The basic job of a financial advisor is to give advice regarding financial matters. This includes the budget planning, advices regarding various loans etc. Like in the other parts of the world, there are many professionals in Glasgow too who works independently. Glasgow financial advisors are helping their clients in getting loans from different sources. Besides, they give advices regarding investments, pension schemes etc too.

As the world has become a global village, the investment opportunities are not limited to any geographical borders. Even if you are living in Glasgow, you can invest your hard earned money anywhere in the world. But certain rules are there to regulate these investments. If you are investing in any foreign countries, it should be in accordance with the law and rules prevailing there. Secondly, the fate of your investment also depends on several things including the political conditions of the country where you are planning to invest. Glasgow financial advisors, like any other financial advisors will give you the right advice and will help you to invest your money in right time in right place.

Their job is not restricted to giving advices.

They will help you to collect almost all data about the changing financial conditions in the world. They can suggest you the best area where you should invest and when you should invest. They can help you to find out agents or brokers to deal with your money in any foreign countries.

At the same time they are there to help industrialists and business people in obtaining loans and deposits as bonds. They will be updated with the recent developments in the banking sector and they will be updated with the changes in the interest rates and the changes in the rules. Glasgow financial advisors provide all these information to their clients and help them to prepare the papers accordingly. Some big corporate have financial advisors in their pay role. However most of the people who are into this profession prefer to work independently.


Steve Mich is the author of this article and writes about law news and other matters. For further details about Glasgow Financial Advisors please visit the

Job description of immigration lawyers

The need for immigration lawyers is most significant in developed countries, where there is a huge inflow of immigrants. Immigrants often face problems with respect to their documents and visas. To facilitate them, guide them and to help them get through the entire procedure without any mishaps, the immigration lawyers play a significant role. The main objective of lawyers is to keep themselves updated with changes in the law and to help immigrants live legally in their country.

This is just a brief job description of immigration lawyers. Studying their job helps one to realize that there are a whole lot of other aspects that they deal with. These lawyers regularly deal with a lot of non immigrants. Non immigrants are those who are not permitted to permanently immigrate to the country, but are permitted to work on a temporary basis. Such non immigrants mostly want to get a work visa to support themselves, before their legal status changes to permanent immigrants. When these non immigrants wish to find a job and a company hires them, it is then the duty of the employer to sponsor the employee for a temporary work visa. For this purpose, immigration lawyers are hired so that they can file the individual’s case and complete all the necessary documentation. They should also file a petition along with counseling and guiding the company about the country’s law with respect to immigrants.

Immigration lawyers also deal with a lot of clients, who wish to get permanent residency in the country. Depending on the country’s law, in most countries it takes many years before their application is considered and starts to get processed.

The authorities usually check the applicant’s entire family background, history, occupation and the home country of the immigrants. A lot of other factors are also considered before the final decision is made. The job of immigration lawyers is to file all the documents, forms and applications and to make the process go smoothly that the authorities have no objection. They should also counsel the employer of the immigrant to make sure that all the paperwork from his end is complete. The deadlines are a huge deal, when it comes to filing legal documents and the lawyers keep tab of all the deadlines, so that the client need not worry about anything.

A lot of cases arise on a regular basis, where the immigrants get involved in a legal offense either intentionally or unintentionally. For instance, some immigrants get caught while trying to enter into the country illegally or without complete paperwork. Some immigrants also face deportation, because the government is not willing to give them permanent residency. In all such cases, clients usually need immigration lawyers. The purpose of hiring a lawyer is to represent their clients in the court and to win the case. Lawyers specializing in this field learn a few foreign languages so as to communicate with the clients from other countries. Many times, residents of undeveloped countries are uneducated and they are not aware of the reasons for which criminal charges are filed against them. They do not have information regarding the paperwork required to legally enter into the country. Such individuals require a lot of assistance from immigration lawyers.

Immigration Lawyers

The immigration process is often tricky, complex, hectic and tiresome. It’s not something that a layman can easily get over with. There are so many documents, forms and loopholes involved that an immigrant working independently is deemed to get a bad outcome.

Click here for the best Immigration Attorney

Certified Nursing Assistant Job Description

The first thing that you think of when hearing the term “Certified Nursing Assistant” is probably a job in a nursing home. Yes, this statement is true, because this is the industry with the biggest demand for CNAs, but there are also many other places where the nursing certificated can be used. But what does exactly being a CNA mean and how does it help you?

The CNA is someone who takes care of the daily needs of those who need nursing care.

Many nurses say that the first thing they learn about their new career is that nursing is not about giving shots, dispensing medicines or being a doctor’s assistant, but its all about learning how to listen and communicate with your patients.

The CNA’s job is in many cases vital to effective medical treatment, because the nurse is the one who spends the most of his time with the patient. This allows the CNA to notice even the slightest changes in the person’s attitude which can be a result of a wrong treatment, critical medical condition or else.

But can you work anywhere else with your CNA degree?
Many nurses are called for home visitation. Usually the patients in this case are old people who can’t perform simple daily tasks and need assistance. For example the nurse may have to help the adult to take a shower or to change his clothes. You may think that it is not important, but think how it looks in the eyes of the old patient. If it wasn’t for the nurse they would have probably be sent to a nursing home.

Many schools hire CNAs to help them take care of minor health issues. These CNAs are not allowed to dispense meditation, but they can greatly help students who have minor health problems.

Many CNAs find work in different rehabilitation programs and facilities.

These places use licensed professionals to all the therapy, but the CNA is the one who gets close to the patients and develops a relationship which may be an important part of the rehabilitation process.

If you want to start a career in health care than nursing may be the choice for you. You can work as a LPN or RN while working on your CNA degree which allows you to get to know your future career even better. Being a nurse may not be one of the highest paid jobs, but it is definitely a rewarding career.


For more information on CNA license Idaho, CNA training programs and tips on CNA training Georgia visit TrainingForCNACertification.Net.

About the Best Job Descriptions

Before you even think about starting and maintaining a good career, you should be able to carefully choose the career you want. And in order for you to choose the right one, you must be well aware of the job descriptions of those careers. For some people who are already aware of these, going off to college and deciding on your career path could be exciting but for some, it could be scary. Some people would end up wanting to change their careers due to lay-offs and job changes. To help you with such problems, there are available quality job descriptions out there. These descriptions aim to: help you make an informative choice by being knowledgeable of the definitions of careers and what are the expected things from you; and to help employers determine the functions or roles that are set forth in specific careers and what to expect from the employees.

The objectives of creating such job descriptions are to help those who are looking for new careers and aid those who want to change their careers to the one that is of most interest to them. They provide you the necessary information about several career options, what employers anticipate, the level of education required to achieve such career or position, and an explanation to the career itself. Since there are several career options there, there are also several job descriptions out there. But you must be able to choose the one that is most suitable to you. The reasons behind this thing are: a career would be your lifelong commitment and you will be doing it for the benefit of yourself and your family; your career would generally demand that you go to higher education and get certified by having more experience in that career; your career would require financial commitment that cannot be recouped except if you really utilize your training; your career would reflect who you are and your life expectations for yourself and your family; and your career would be a part of you.

There are some careers that require you to have trainings or to take courses at your local college.

These types of careers could help you get employed immediately with less effort. Some of these careers include: fast food restaurant workers, lawn workers, retailing, and cashiering. These careers cater to people who have not been able to have collegiate studies. These people are trained on the job and are promoted to managerial positions with time and experience. These careers often pay low at the start but will eventually pay a higher salary.

On the other hand, there are those careers that require extensive and long training before you could even have the job. These are referred to as specialization careers. Such careers include: physicians, lawyers, accountants, management positions, and more. You would see that these careers require a considerable amount of money, time, and effort as you study through college.

Depending on your qualifications and needs, there is a right career for you. But be sure that before you choose a career, you are knowledgeable about that career.

Loren Yadeski, author of this article is also interested in job descriptions and recommends you to please check out best job descriptions if you liked reading this information.

Job Description and Car Insurance

One of the proudest moments of my early years as an actor was purchasing my first car, an old Renault Six. A couple of weeks after passing my test I walked into the AA office in central London to arrange some proper insurance cover. A few forms to fill out, a hastily written cheque, and the world would be my oyster.
I didn’t know how hard it was going to be. Everybody likes talking to actors, but when it comes to providing us with mortgages, bank loans or motor insurance we are somewhere between stunt men and serial killers in the list of desirable clients. The popular perception is that we are reckless, hard-drinking hell-raisers who think nothing of getting behind the wheel after an all-night bender of booze and drugs, usually with some international celebrity in the passenger seat whose insurance claim if they go through the windscreen will bankrupt the entire western economy.
Of course I didn’t know this when I breezed up to the counter. I anticipated merely having to answer a couple of simple questions. Indeed, for the first few minutes all went smoothly. Type of car, size of engine, third party or fully comprehensive, will the vehicle be garaged or parked on the street; I already felt the young man behind the desk was becoming a good friend. Then we got to the item marked “occupation”.
“Actor,” I said, anticipating a delighted smile and a few requests for theatrical tittle-tattle. “Aah,” he replied. He wasn’t smiling. In fact he was looking anxiously at his notes. “I’m afraid I’ll have to refer this to head office. Just a moment,” He picked up a nearby phone and waited for a supervisor to respond.
During the following 30 minutes the youth behind the desk was given a series of subsidiary questions to ask down the phone by the supervisor, each of which had to be relayed to me, with my answer relayed back down the wires to the supervisor. “Are you in the theatre or on television?” I replied theatre, omitting the fact that this was through necessity rather than choice. Hopefully that would be the end of it.
“What was your last role?” – “The part of Hickory Wood in One For the Pot,” I replied, through gritted teeth. What the hell had this to do with my driving ability? The relaying of this answer seemed to wrong-foot the supervisor. I was asked to spell the word Hickory, and a further minute passed while whoever was on the end of the phone wrote it all down.
“Would you describe it as a lead role or a small role?” – “Is this really necessary?” I snapped. The youth stared blankly at me and assured me it was. I told him that as I had 51 separate entrances in the play, it could be safely counted as a main part. After a few seconds of whispered conversation, he looked up at me again. “Er… could you give some idea of what you had to do in it?” My temper snapped. “I had to lift up a Scotsman’s kilt and squirt the contents of a soda siphon up it,” I rasped. “Are you going to give me some car insurance?”
“I’m sorry sir, I’m just following company rules,” replied the youth. He turned away again to communicate to his supervisor the single funniest moment of the play. I hoped the supervisor wasn’t from Glasgow. At length he spoke again. His brow was covered with a thin film of sweat.
“Would you describe it as a drama or a comedy?” – “It’s a bloody farce,” I roared, “and so is this.” I marched out of the office.
Three days later I returned. This time I was wearing a jacket, shirt and tie and corduroy trousers. A different employee was on duty. It was time to back my hunch. “I’d like to arrange some car insurance please,” I beamed. Ten questions later I gave my occupation as drama teacher. Five after that I was back in the street with a year’s fully comp in my hot little hand; the word teacher had done the trick.
Insurances are a very necessary part of life. Car Insurance protects us should accidents happen on the roads and Life Insurance is there to protect our families should we unfortunately die.

When someone dies, mortgages, car loans, medical bills, and credit card debts are often left unpaid, and must be paid from the assets left behind. This is why Life Insurance is a good idea, because it leaves your other assets intact for your family to benefit from. Visit Cheap Term Life Insurance Quotes for information and articles about Cheap Life Insurance Fill in our easy to use quote form and get covered to-day.

A Job Description for Congress

Recent polls show that Americans aren’t at all impressed with our U.S. Congress. Really. I know you’re shocked to hear it, but it’s true. In fact, a recent AP poll shows that 73% of Americans disapprove of the job Congress is doing, while only 22% approve. These are the lowest numbers in decades. Oh, and in case you’re wondering if the question was “leading”, it wasn’t. Here is specifically what people were asked:

“Overall, do you approve, disapprove or have mixed feelings about the way Congress is handling its job?”

I don’t know about you, but I don’t think there are a lot of ways to misinterpret that question.

So what’s behind all this crankiness? Well, I think a few key factors are coming together in a sort of “perfect storm” for members of Congress. What are they? I’m glad you asked.

Reason #1: Candidates Over Promising

In the 2006 elections, with Democrats eager to take over the House and Senate, there were a whole lot of promises made by candidates about getting the U.S. out of Iraq quickly. If you haven’t noticed, we’re still in Iraq. In fact, most of the increase in disapproval ratings comes from annoyed liberal Democrats who assumed that once Democrats took over Congress, all would be well (from their perspective).

Here’s the thing, though. Frankly, there’s no way in heck that any single member of Congress can have any impact at all on an issue of such national scope – much less quickly. In the legislative process it takes a minimum of 271 policy makers (½ the House plus ½ the Senate plus the President) to reach agreement on anything before it can be implemented. 271 people simply aren’t going to make quick decisions.

Clearly, candidates and incumbents alike do a disservice to their constituents when they promise things that, because of the nature of the institution, they can’t deliver. As citizens, we have a responsibility to call them on it every once in a while, right?

Reason #2: No One Understands What “The Job” Is

But the problem isn’t just with unscrupulous politicians making promises they can’t keep. In fact, a major part of the problem is that very few people – candidates and citizens alike – have any idea what “Congress’ job” is! When asked, most people would say that it is Congress’ job to pass legislation. Period. So naturally it’s disappointing when we hear that of the 10,000 bills introduced in a Congressional session, only about 4% pass.

The truth is, though, that while Congress as an institution is the branch of our government designated to make laws as necessary and appropriate, it is the job of individual members of Congress to represent the interests of the district or state they’ve been elected to serve. More often than not, these two objectives are at odds. It’s like asking United Airlines to run a national flight schedule while telling individual pilots they can fly wherever they want (granted, this summer it’s felt a little like that).

It seems to me that to clarify the position for candidates and citizens alike, we need a job description for members of Congress, maybe something along the following lines:

Wanted. Genial, ethical, trustworthy, highly intelligent, photogenic worker who plays well with others. Must be willing to fight tooth and nail for the interests of his or her region while also maintaining a national perspective. Will be responsible for approximately 750,000 to several million customers, depending on the region. Must be able to work independently, but not TOO independently.

Duties include responding to several thousand to several million communications per month, meeting with customers as requested, introducing and pursuing policy initiatives and attending meetings as called at random by institution leadership. Must be willing to work 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Will need to raise own funds to maintain position (on own time).

Benefits include salary that must be used to maintain two households, full health coverage and pension, the occasional under $ 25 lunch and the thrill of being called “The Honorable.” Workers will also be treated with deference by many (and with derision by many more). In addition, effective workers will have the ability to make a difference for people in their communities

OK, I’ll grant that this doesn’t include a full description of either the duties or the benefits, but it does, hopefully give us a different perspective on what Congress “does.” I’ll be the first to admit that many current members of Congress are under qualified for the position, and that’s why we have elections.

Reason #3: Citizens Expect Too Much

Finally, fueled by the combination of candidates over-promising and a lack of understanding about what Congress does, citizens have come to expect too much from Congress. There it is. I’ve said it. I know that many people will tell me that “we pay their salaries” and that “we have a right to expect more” and I agree! We should expect a great deal from our representatives in government.

What should we expect of them? We should expect them to represent the interests of the region they are elected to serve in the best way they can during the consideration of legislation. And what should we expect of Congress as an institution? We should expect Congress to very slowly and very deliberately, with much rancor, debate and compromise, pull all the various interests together into one cohesive whole.

Hmm, seems like that’s what’s happening. Maybe it’s a little too much “rancor, debate and compromise” for the majority of Americans and, if so, it’s definitely time to look at how the institution is structured. Because believe me, the U.S. Congress will never become a lean, mean, policy-making machine without some major changes.

All that said, it doesn’t seem reasonable or responsible to leave it at “gee, that’s how Congress is.” I mean, we all want a government that we can approve of and believe in, right? So, how can you and your organization make a difference? Here are a few ideas:

* Help advocates understand what Congress can and cannot do for them. There are some resources on my site that may be useful. Or you can download our advocacy checklist in our Article Vault. Another great resource is Open Congress

* Let candidates know that making promises they can’t keep is grounds for dismissal. At the same time, be clear about your criteria – one great way to do so is through a candidate survey. If you’re considering running one, let us know! We might be able to help.

* Vote! If you think a member of Congress doesn’t live up to the job description, find someone who will. Register to vote at

* Come up with your own ideas for reform – if you want a Congress that will “get things done” and/or is “more responsive” then help take the steps necessary to get there (recognizing that those goals may be mutually exclusive). Do you think we should have fewer Representatives? A different process? More public participation? Share your ideas – and your enthusiasm!

Armed with your ideas, support and positive advocacy efforts, perhaps we can make Congress an institution we can all be proud of – or at least not be really, really annoyed at!

Stephanie Vance, the Advocacy Guru at Advocacy Associates, works with organizations that want to impact public policy through effective advocacy techniques. She offers training and consulting services on getting government to listen and can be found on the web at

Job Description in Transportation Industry

Transportation sector is the allied service which caters to all the industries. Over all development of economy depends upon the transportation activities. This sector has great significance with complex and intricate network. The large transport division has variety of job opportunities.  The jobs in this sector are of two types. One is those who transports and another is those who arranges the transport system.


The actual work in transportation is done by those who carry in fields like loaders, laborers, assistants drivers etc. Organized transport sector including shipping, cargo offices, aviation, C & F agents, logistics, and etc needs, young candidates with minimum standard qualifications for proper running of the offices. Here, the qualification is not necessary to be given prime importance. The main important factor is the work expertise like driving, loading-unloading etc.


Transportation job descriptions in this case will include the job profile, responsibilities of the basic level of employees in transport sector.

The administration wing of transport sector is present all around the country.  The high qualified professionals are required in these types of job profiles like logistics manager, supervisors, specialist, security officer etc. These job profile have white collar jobs in offices. The knowledge required in these types of job profile includes office work, computer literacy, reporting methods etc. In this case, transportation job descriptions include greater and responsible job profile and responsibilities.


There are several jobs in this sector which requires different skills and educational qualifications.

Hence, there are different transportation job descriptions for different type of duties.


As there are different job profiles in transportation sector, there are also several transportation job descriptions for them. Depending upon the job profile, role and responsibility is given as the description.


The Nurse Supervisor Job Description

If you are working in the medical field you might be working long hours almost each day and most people won’t even be glad about. It’s sad that people who work so hard do not always get recognized by the people that they help. Yet, it is still a really noble job and one that not everybody will have the ability to do.

That may be why these folks, whether or not they  be medical professionals or nurses, will work hard to succeed and do well in everything they do. As an RN you’ll be given the chance to move up in the hospital that you work in. After a couple years of understanding just how everything works you’ll eventually graduate to the level of being a nurse supervisor. That is if you meet the nurse supervisor necessities. These are not always the easiest to make use of.

Before you agree to the position you must consider carefully about what you’re accepting yourself into. As the supervisor you might be in command of each nurse that’s inside your department. This is a enormous job. It means you will be the one to keep all of them in line, to provide them their schedules, and also to provide them with required advice.

It’ll also be your job to be sure that all of the mundane red tape has been taken care of. In a few hospitals you could be required to perform orders for provisions or even to put together funding for parts of this hospital. We never said you would work fewer hours – but you’ll get paid more.

Just remember you will have a good deal of responsibilities placed on your shoulders. The buck is going to stop at you and it will be your job to hand out discipline where it is needed in order to stay in control over your personnel.

They should respect you so keep in mind to respect them too. These are the most important requirements that you will need to be using and the ones that are going to help you get through it all.

New Grad Nursing Jobs are not always the best things for you to be able to do. Learn what type of Nurse Supervisor Qualifications that you need to know.

The Need For Job Descriptions

Job descriptions are commonly seen on job postings and advertisements. Aside from the stated qualifications, every job has a description that comes with it. From cleaning and janitorial jobs to supervisorial and managerial positions, job descriptions are always used to further explain to applicants the duties and responsibilities of the posted job. With this, the applicants are better prepared for the interview. Also they will know what to expect in that job. This is especially important for people planning their careers ahead of them. Thus, job descriptions are vital in job advertisements.

Job applicants are not the only ones who benefit from job descriptions. The descriptions are also important to the other party the employers. Aside from future employees, employers should also know everything about the job they are posting. Human resource departments dont just post anything that they are looking for. They study what they write in their job posting. With descriptions on their hand, they can always check if they are posting the right positions and qualifications. They will know who to look for and what to expect from applicants.

Young people specifically those who plan on getting into college also need job descriptions. Graduating senior high school students planning for their future are on the lookout for the right course and university suited for them. Different descriptions of jobs can help them choose what course they will take. They can evaluate their selves more on what they really want to do with their lives if they know about the things that are in store for them. For example, students who want to build infrastructures and plants should take up engineering courses.

However to make it clearer, students can read up on the jobs waiting for them if they took up engineering. With the help of descriptions, they can re-assess their selves if they really want to be what they want to be. For instance, there are those who plan to be doctors ever since they started studying but the moment they know about more about the job they bolt out and choose a rather different degree. It is always important to answer questions in the minds of these hopeful students to give them time to better plan their futures and prevent last minute bail outs.

Students, graduates, and other people looking for jobs can always go online and surf the internet. The internet can also be used by people not yet sure with what to do with their lives. They can search for job descriptions widely available on the web. From jobs related to arts to sports and fitness, there are available job descriptions for you. From high paying jobs such as managerial positions to modest jobs such as cooking and gardening, you can find descriptions with just a few search queries on your search engine. People who have degrees and those who didnt go to college can find what they are looking for. They can browse through hundreds of different job descriptions to help them plan their future ahead. Whatever job you are looking for, you are sure that you will find one for you.

Loren Yadeski, author of this article is also interested in job descriptions and recommends you to please check out best job descriptions if you liked reading this information.

Work Experience – Get a Job Without Having All the Qualifications in the Job Description

Career-changers, new graduates, and college students:

>> can’t get an interview because you have insufficient work experience?

>> or do you get an interview, but can’t get the job because the interviewer still thinks you’re unqualified?

>> or do you not even apply because you don’t meet all the qualifications in the job description?

Use the six points below to help your interviewer look past your inexperience.

* If you don’t have the basic qualifications, you won’t get an interview. With one job posting receiving 50 applications (and even more during times of high unemployment), the basic required qualifications listed in the job description are the easiest way to reduce the number of potential candidates. You will be screened out by the web application system, the Human Resources department, or the hiring manager. Find a way to demonstrate the basics so you will still be considered. This is the only time when sufficient work experience is an absolute must.

* If you don’t know why you’re there, you won’t be invited back. Do you know why you want this position? Do you know why you want to work for this company? Do you know what the interviewer wants to hear and what he definitely does not want to hear? If you get this part of the conversation wrong, you lose your chances of being hired.

* If you think you’re not worthy, you won’t get the job. Yes, you are inexperienced. Yes, you do not have as much job experience as your competitors. Yes, you will have a lot to learn… but you had better have something to offer from the first day.

Do you act confidently and truly believe you are the best person for this job, or do you wallow in your inexperience and make excuses? If you don’t believe you are worthy to be in this job, the interviewer will take your word for it. Goodbye, job offer.

* If you won’t learn, you won’t work. Because you don’t have as much work experience as the other applicants, you must prove what you do have. Show your drive and your willingness to learn. Demonstrate how you will improve your weaknesses and solidify your strengths. Have an action plan ready to show how you will match the job description and remove the interviewer’s doubts.

* If you are stuck in the past, that’s where you’ll stay. No matter how great you were in past positions, the interviewer wants to hear what you can do for him now. Your experience and abilities matter the first day on the job, so past performance does not guarantee future success. Instead of waiting for the interviewer to connect the dots, give examples and tell stories that relate your accomplishments to what the interviewer needs. Connect the dots for him.

* If no one supports you, you’re a high risk. Just like with investments, every hiring manager has a “risk tolerance”. Some hiring managers will take a chance on under-qualified applicants, but most would rather stay with the safe choices. If you don’t have a lot of job experience in the field, you are already a higher risk than the other candidates. Reduce that risk by supplying powerful recommendation letters and references. Get credible people to vouch for how you work, how you learn, and how you interact with others.

Work experience matters but it is not always the deciding factor.

Click the link for more details and a six-step plan to overcome your work experience. Sean Haggard is an interviewer and hiring manager with over 12 years of experience. He tells you want the interviewers really want to hear and how you can wow them at the Interview Backdoor.

Copyright © 2010 Sean Haggard. All rights reserved. This article may be reprinted only as a whole, with the title, body, author byline/signature, and copyright intact. This article may not be sold without prior permission from the author.